APJNT Vol 4 No 2 2022

Trauma-Focused Clinical Neurofeedback: A Case Report On Emotional-Based Customized Protocol for Anxiety and Focus Problems

New Mind Brain Health Centre, Wisma Life Care, No.5, Jalan Kerinchi, 59200 Bangsar South, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


A thirty-eight year old woman suffering from Ophidiophobia, and other anxiety symptoms sought help. There was evidence of some prior traumatic experiences underlying some of her symptoms. There was also evidence of some difficulties with executive functioning. These symptoms were impacting upon her work performance. She undertook twelve sessions of neurofeedback training, after which assessment pointed to significant improvement in symptomatology.
Prior to beginning neurotherapy, Miss E underwent three sessions of clinical hypnotherapy. The hypnotherapist concluded that these symptoms were related to problems linked to attachment issues in relation to Miss E’s parents. Previous research has linked a person’s attachment style to their brain wave activity (Ma et al., 2017).
©️ 2022 Published jointly by ANSA and APNA societies of Australasia and ASEAN Countries. Selected and peer-review by editorial board of Asia Pacific Journal of Neuro therapy (APJNT). from raw EEG data; later, these features are used for classification. Here, the long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm wasimplemented as a classifier. The classification accuracy of more than 0.98 is achieved for both classes. These promising results make our model reliable for practical implementations.

APJNT Vol 4 No 1 2022

EEG based Epileptic data classification using Long Short Term Memory (LSTM)

Cognitive and Neural Engineering Research Group, Department of Computer systems, Brno University of Technology
Brno University of Technology, Brno, 612 00, Czech Republic


This study aims to analyze the Epileptic Electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The goal is to differentiate EEG patterns of epilepsy and non-epilepsy in subjects. The EEG of the subjects was recorded during and before the seizure occurred. Next, the features are automatically extracted from raw EEG data; later, these features are used for classification. Here, the long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm wasimplemented as a classifier. The classification accuracy of more than 0.98 is achieved for both classes. These promising results make our model reliable for practical implementations.

Keywords: EEG, LSTM, deep learning, epilepsy

The treatment of complex PTSD in a refugee woman through the integration of neurofeedback with trauma-informed therapy: A case study

  1. NSW Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors, Australia
  2. NSW Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors, Australia
  3. NSW Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors, Australia


Objective: The case of Fay, a 40-year-old Syrian refugee woman who has experienced both developmental and refugee trauma was chosen to demonstrate the potential of neurofeedback in treating complex PTSD symptoms.
Methods: Outlines pre and post assessments, and the use of neurofeedback protocols for stabilisation of arousal, their rationale and how they were integrated into trauma-informed therapy.
Results: Pre and post comparisons indicate changes in resting EEG patterns as well as significant reductions in post-traumatic symptoms, depression and anxiety symptoms.

Keywords: Neurofeedback, complex PTSD, refugee trauma, developmental trauma & protocols

Papers from APJNT Vol 2 No 2 Year 2020

Raw EEG based visual learners classification using LSTM

  1. Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research (CISIR), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.
  2. Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 
  3. Department of Fundamental and Applied Science Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia.


The idea of this study is to analyse the learning styles of students using Raw Electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The aim is to differentiate raw EEG patterns of visual and non-visual learners. Thirty-four students were recruited to participate to this study.  The Long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm was implemented as a classifier. The results showed 87.5% classification accuracy.

Keywords: Raw EEG, LSTM, learning style, visual learner

Loreta Neurofeedback Targeting Attention Networks in Table Tennis Athletes Modulates Neural Connectivity and Enhances Visual-Spatial Attention

  1. School of Behavioural, Cognitive and Social Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia & neuroCare Group Melbourne
  2. University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  3. Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Building 32, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.
  4. Centre for Brain Science, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Essex, CO4 3SQ, UK.


The aim of this study was firstly to identify alpha band EEG sources playing a functional role in the performance differences
between elite and amateur table tennis players use of visuo-spatial cues to guide response selection. EEG was recorded from 206 elite and amateur table tennis athletes from across the International Table Tennis Federation. EEG was obtained during eyes closed. (EC) and eyes open rest (EO) and during a 4-minute video task (VT). The VT was filmed from the player’s perspective to simulate match-play against a top 100 world ranked player. Participants imagined playing against the on-screen player. Players also completed a visuo-spatially cued version of the Go-NoGo continuous performance task (vsCPT). eLORETA compared EEG source activity between an age and gender matched sample of 16 elite and 16 amateur players. Activity at maximal source differences was then correlated with behavioural vsCPT performance measures. EEG source differences between elite and amateur players reached a maximum between 10.50 and 11.75 Hz (upper alpha) in the VT condition with loci in right BA6 (supplementary motor area, sensory selection for motor control) and right BA13 (insula cortex, salience detection). Source activity estimates correlated significantly with superior processing speed and perceptual sensitivity under increased processing demands on the vsCPT. Upper alpha synchronisation in right BA6 and right BA13 when actively processing an opponents’ match specific motion is greater in elite than amateur players and indicates superior visuo-spatial guided response selection.

Keywords: sLoreta Neurofeedback, alpha, upper-alpha, inhibition-timing, visuo-spatial attention, performance enhancement, table tennis, motor control, table tennis.

Cannabis: Exit Drug to Neurotherapy

  1. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.
  2. Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


This article reviews the use of cannabis for therapeutic purpose. Cannabis or marijuana had been used as a medicine in ancient China, but the illicit use of substance was stigmatized under the United Nations’ single convention on narcotic drugs. Researchers have conducted limited preclinical and clinical studies using medical marijuana, mainly as curative for memory impairment, or exit drug for substance abuse cases. The use of Cannabis for Therapeutic Purposes (CTP) in several neurological disorders is also discussed together with respective details. Finally, the similarity of CTP objectives with neurofeedback, and future research recommendations are proposed. The information presented in this article shows potential and scope of CTP with complete references.

Keywords: Cannabis, Exit Drug, Neurotherapy, therapeutic, medicine, CTP, neurofeedback, severe pain relief.

Papers from APJNT Vol 2 No 1 Year 2020

Neurofeedback and Counseling as Integrative Treatment

  1. Loh Guan Lye Specialists Centre, Malaysia


This paper describes neurofeedback as a tool that is suitable for use along with counselling approaches. The benefits of integrating neurofeedback with counselling are discussed. Neurofeedback training offers opportunities for rehabilitation through directly retraining brain activity. For clients with severe symptoms and resistance to many other treatments, neurofeedback has provided a new beginning and has offered hope. In this paper, four cases of patients with presenting problems including insomnia, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression using this integrated treatment approach are presented. All participants in this case series experienced significant benefits.


Neural Network for Detection of Students’ interest using Approximate Entropy Features of EEG data

  1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia.
  2. Department of Fundamental and Applied Science Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia.
  3. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia.


Studies have found that optimizing course contents or lecture materials according to student’s interest could improve learning outcomes. In this work, we advocate the use of Electroencephalogram (EEG) as a modality to qualify student’s interest based on their respective brain activities. An EEG-based detection of interest in real classroom environment using Approximate Entropy (ApEn) is proposed. The method involved the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to discriminate the EEG data as relevant to either high or low situational interest. The qualitative assessment was performed by Personal Interest (PI), Situational interest (SI) questionnaires and knowledge tests which were considered as ground truth for the classifications. An accuracy of 100% and R2=0.996 was achieved in classifying 17 students as high SI or low SI. The results show that the proposed features could be used to differentiate brain activities based on student’s interest.

Keywords: Situational interest, EEG, classroom, Approximate Entropy and ANN.

EEG Neurofeedback Training for Mental Health Issues of Prisoners

  1. Department of Psychology, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Hosur Road, Bengaluru – 560029, India.


The EEG neurofeedback training is an upcoming intervention concerning many disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder, Schizophrenia and Depression as well. The main aim of this review was to study the efficacy of this intervention on a vulnerable population like prisoners. Papers for this review were selected from established databases like PubMed, ProQuest, and ScienceDirect among many. The use of neurofeedback in the forensic psychiatric setting did not show a healthy level of applicability as expected. The main reasons for this were the variations in the sample characteristics between the studies, along with the motivation of the prisoners as well. The prison setting also delayed and interfered with the training and could also be alluded to its apparent difficulty in the application of this treatment. There are a small number of studies with even smaller samples in a population that is difficult to engage. These conditions have led to inconclusive results in most cases. There is scope for improvement, and this is an upcoming area of research. Future directions are also discussed.

Keywords: Neurofeedback, prisons, neurobiology, interventions, & protocols.

A brief literature survey into the effects of coal seam gas exploration by-products on Human EEG

  1. School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia.
  2. MindSapce Australia, Sydney, Australia.
  3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE.


Environmental toxins are rapidly increasing as more new chemicals are synthesised and applied in agriculture, nutrition and industry including conventional and unconventional mining exploration. In the coal seam gas (CSG) exploration industry, fracking or fracturing and venting are common methods of extraction where several hundred known and unknown chemicals are used or released from the ground during the mining and venting process. Chemicals associated with fracking can lead to headaches and migraine, stress and anxiety, toxic encephalopathy as well as dizziness/balance problems and seizures. Quick and accurate as well as economical diagnostic tools are required for confirming neurological disease or toxic encephalopathy. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is one such tool for obtaining baseline data that may be associated with toxic encephalopathy. Characteristic EEG findings from the literature are focal or generalised slowing in the delta and theta frequencies or fast beta rhythms indicative of diffuse or focal cerebral structural damage and dysfunction. This paper discusses some of the common chemicals associated with CSG mining and associated EEG findings.

Keywords: Encephalopathy; Coal Seam Gas, toxins; Electroencephalogram

Papers from APJNT Vol 1 No 2 Year 2019

The Efficacy of Neurofeedback and Traditional Therapies with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Clinic Setting

  1. PhD (Psych), Good Start Psychology, South Australia.
  2. BPsych (Hons), Good Start Psychology, South Australia.


The efficacy of amplitude neurofeedback (NFB) in a clinic-based setting was explored in this study using a sample of 132 participants. 96% of participants were under 21 years of age. The sample appeared to be representative of the wider autistic child population. The current study used an ex post facto, quasi-experimental design. Using a clinically meaningful measure of change, called the Goal Attainment Scale, NFB participants demonstrated moderate gains on a targeted, challenging behavior or emotional problem. These gains were equivalent to a clinical response (> 50% reduction in symptoms) in traditional research terms. The NFB group performed better in absolute terms compared with traditional therapies and with NFB combined with traditional therapies. These group differences were not significant. A number of other factors did not influence clinical outcome
(e.g., age, diagnosis, protocol type) suggesting that assessment-based NFB protocols, informed by experienced NFB practitioners, and delivered by NFB practitioners with two years’ experience or less, can translate into significant and meaningful improvements for people on the spectrum. The limitations of this study were addressed.

Keywords: Encephalopathy; Coal Seam Gas, toxins; Electroencephalogram

Learning and Memory Improvement: Evidence from Current Research and Neurofeedback Applications

  1. Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research (CISIR), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.
  2. CTO, brain9D, Adelaide, South Australia.


Learning and memory are two related, but distinct, fundamental cognitive processes. Both of these are continuous processes over the life span. In the current article, we provide a comprehensive review of the extant literature that has focused on various factors that influence the human brain processes for learning and memory. We review several factors that have been reported as directly or indirectly influence the learning and memory processes, such as sleep, emotion, exercise, attention, intelligence, testing, rehearsal, and technology. We also examine the literature on ways to enhance cognitive abilities, including neurofeedback, improve learning and memory capabilities. We conclude with a discussion of the gaps in the literature and suggestions for future research in the field.

Keywords: Learning & memory, neurofeedback (NFB), sleep, attention, stress, emotion, intelligence, testing & rehearsal, and technology.

Treating Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Pulsed EMF Therapy: A Case Series Report

  1. Brain Therapy Centre, Adelaide, South Australia.


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex, multifaceted developmental disability and presents significant challenges for intervention. Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is considered the standard of treatment for improving ASD symptoms but has limitations. Neuromodulation exists as a possible additional intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) that may be helpful for younger, lower functioning people. This study presents a series of 5 cases where young people with ASD were treated using transcranial pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (tPEMF). Pre- and posttreatment assessment using the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) revealed statistically significant improvements in total ATEC scores, and qualitative improvements in symptoms were also reported. Future research should focus on developing a clinical trial protocol to address the limitations of a case study methodology.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, case study research, Autism treatment, tPEMF, tPEMF for Autism.

Neurofeedback for Psychosis

  1. MB, BS, DPM, MRCPsych, FRANZCP, School of Medicine, Western Sydney University.


Psychosis causes major disease burden, individual, family, social and economic pain. Medications are of limited effectiveness and cause many unpleasant side effects. Technology is now allowing us to examine the organ being treated, to better personalize therapies, including neurofeedback operant conditioning. The epigenetic effects of developmental trauma in the causation of psychosis are highly significant and responsive to quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) guided neurofeedback, with very promising results. While there are many questions to be answered, it is time to implement this therapy more widely.

Keywords: psychosis, schizophrenia, epigenetics, qEEG, neurofeedback, developmental trauma, burden of disease, recovery


Papers from APJNT Vol 1 No 1 Year 2019

EEG amplitude neurofeedback: a review of the research

  1. Neurotherapy Institute of Australasia (NIA), 55B Kooyong Road, Caulfield North, Victoria 3161, Australia.


Studies published on neuromodulation for the past 50 years were analyzed for neuromodulation technique, research design, condition or disorder investigated and outcome. 314 relevant studies were found, involving over 9,500 research subjects. EEG amplitude neurofeedback contributed over 70% of all studies. 62 randomized controlled design studies were found (and two utilizing an ABA crossover design), and of those, over 75% involved amplitude neurofeedback. Outcomes for amplitude neurofeedback were overwhelmingly positive, as they also were for other techniques with a reasonable research base. For some neuromodulation techniques the research data is meagre, and more research is needed to confirm efficacy.

Keywords: EEG; amplitude; neurofeedback; neurotherapy; neuromodulation; review; research; study; modality; comparison; RCT; case

Multi-modality based diagnosis: A Way Forward

  1. Neurotherapy Institute of Australasia (NIA), 55B Kooyong Road, Caulfield North, Victoria 3161, Australia.


The Human brain is our most complex organ and responsible for controlling all bodily functions. The brain is also implicated in many psychiatric disorders and diseases such as Dementia, Depression, Epilepsy, Parkinson, Stroke, Tumour, and so on. Researchers from different fields including Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Psychiatry, Psychology, Pharmacology, Engineering, and Computing, are continuously working to investigate and develop novel techniques to diagnose and treat the brain’s disorders using neuroimaging modalities. Today, many different modalities are currently used such as electroencephalogram (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near infrared (fNIR), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and computed tomography (CT). Each technique has its own strengths and limitations and thus is suited to a specific area of study. However, these modalities can be used simultaneously to reduce the limitations of using one technique and enhance the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Multimodality-based diagnosis will help clinicians to identify both early and accurately those individuals who are at risk of many conditions including brain tumor, tumor recurrence, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: EEG; amplitude; neurofeedback; neurotherapy; neuromodulation; review; research; study; modality; comparison; RCT; case


  1. neuroCare, Sydney, Level 19, 56 Pitt Street Sydney. NSW. 2000. Australia.
  2. neuroCare, Melbourne, Level 8, 372 Albert Street, East Melbourne. VIC. 3012. Australia.
  3. Research Institute Brainclinics Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
  4. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Centre,
    Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
  5. Dept of Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Recent evidence points to the increasingly important role of sleep disturbance in ADHD. Circadian phase delay, resulting in delayed sleep onset, has been consistently described with causality implied for a large subgroup with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The likelihood of varied and numerous causations in ADHD, the high prevalence of sleep disorders and the likely etiological/pathogenetic role of sleep disorders for a large subgroup with ADHD encourages a personalized medicine approach, particularly by assessing sleep and identifying biomarkers to assist in identifying subgroups which can enable a more personalized treatment. Psychostimulants are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment of ADHD, but do not assist sleep problems and can in fact exacerbate them. In a large subgroup with ADHD, psychoeducation and sleep hygiene, CBTi and chronotherapy also have an important role to play in treating ADHD symptoms associated with sleep disturbance. Neurofeedback (operant conditioning of EEG), may have specific and lasting effects on sleep, and in turn ADHD symptoms, with the effect shown to be mediated via the normalization of sleep. This review article summaries and reports on some of the accumulating evidence for the role of sleep in ADHD and outlines various methods for assessment and intervention.

Keywords: EEG; amplitude; neurofeedback; neurotherapy; neuromodulation; review; research; study; modality; comparison; RCT; case


  1. CEO at BetterFly Neurofeedback, 24 Beit-El st, Tel-Aviv 6908720, Israel.


In the last two decades, qEEG has turned from a purely research tool into an important, basic part of the work of many neurofeedback clinicians. The analysis of EEG samples requires extensive knowledge and experience, which up until a decade ago were the province of a few experts in the neurofeedback community. Unlike the deep knowledge that is required in order to analyze raw EEG, performing an FFT analysis and creating qEEG maps and graphs is computerized and relatively straight forward. This article presents examples that explain the importance of surveying the raw EEG before starting the qEEG analysis, and combining raw EGG analysis with a close reading of the qEEG report in order to perform a reliable analysisof the information and to make proper decisions regarding the treatment protocol. In this article, we will use a few different softwares and technologies, and try to illustrate the common factors and common ideas that underlie each of these technologies.

Developmental Trauma, LENS and Neural Regulation: Brain and Body

  1. Ph.D. Private Practice206A – 1571 Bellevue Avenue, West Vancouver, BCV7V1A6, Canada.


Individuals with a history of Developmental Trauma often have complex histories and symptom patterns that do not respond easily to therapeutic interventions. The addition of LENS Neurofeedback and its integration with other psychotherapeutic interventions for Developmental Trauma are discussed. LENS is unique in the field of neurofeedback in that it applies the concept of neural regulation not only to the brain but also to the body, reflecting both Top-down and Bottom-up interventions. Such an integrated body mind approach dovetails uniquely with other information processing interventions. Case studies of individuals that had previously had not responded to other interventions are presented who benefitted from the integration of LENS neurofeedback and associated neural regulation approaches into standard trauma treatment interventions. It is suggested that individuals with a history of Developmental Trauma benefit from the addition to LENS neurofeedback by directly intervening at the level of the electrical or frequency domain.